Kyiv is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the
Dnieper River. The population of the city about 3 million. making Kiev the 7th most populous city in
Europe. Kyiv is an important industrial, scientific, educational, and cultural center of Eastern Europe. The
city has an extensive infrastructure and highly developed system of public transport, including the Kyiv
Kiev, one of the oldest cities of Eastern Europe, played a pivotal role in the development of the medieval
East Slavic civilization as well as in the modern Ukrainian nation. During its history, Kyiv passed through
several stages of great prominence and relative obscurity. The city probably existed as a commercial
center as early as the 5th century. During World War II, the city suffered significant damage, but quickly
recovered in the post-war years, remaining the third largest city of the Soviet Union. Kyiv continued to
be Ukraine’s largest and richest city.
The city’s name is said to derive from the name of Kyi, one of its four legendary founders. During its
history, Kiev, one of the oldest cities in Eastern Europe, passed through several stages of great
prominence and relative obscurity. The city probably existed as a commercial center as early as the 5th
century. A Slavic settlement on the great trade route between Scandinavia and Constantinople, Kiev was
a tributary of the Khazars, until its capture by the Varangians (Vikings) in the mid-9th century. Under
Varangian rule, the city became a capital of the Kievan Rus’, the first East Slavic state.
The city prospered during the Russian Empire’s Industrial Revolution in the late 19th century. In 1918,
after the Ukrainian National Republic declared independence from Soviet Russia, Kiev became its
capital. From 1921 onwards Kiev was a city of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, which was
proclaimed by the Red Army, and, from 1934, Kiev was its capital. During World War II, the city again
suffered significant damage, but quickly recovered in the post-war years, remaining the third largest city
of the Soviet Union.
Modern Kiev is a mix of the old (Kiev preserved about 70 percent of more than 1,000 buildings built
during 1907–1914) and the new, seen in everything from the architecture to the stores and to the
people themselves. When the capital of the Ukrainian SSR was moved from Kharkiv to Kiev many new
buildings were commissioned to give the city “the gloss and polish of a capital”. In the discussions
centered on how to create a showcase city center the current city center of Khreshchatyk and Maidan
Nezalezhnosti (Independence Square) were not the obvious choices. Some of the early, ultimately not
materialised, ideas included a part of Pechersk, Lypky, European Square and Mykhailivska Square. The
plans of building massive monuments (of Vladimir Lenin and Joseph Stalin) were also abandoned; due to
lack of money (in the 1930s–1950s) and because of Kiev’s hilly landscape. Experiencing rapid population
growth between the 1970s and the mid-1990s, the city has continued its consistent growth after the
turn of the millennium. As a result, Kiev’s central districts provide a dotted contrast of new, modern
buildings among the pale yellows, blues and greys of older apartments. Urban sprawl has gradually
reduced, while population densities of suburbs has increased. The most expensive properties are
located in the Pechersk, and Khreshchatyk areas. It is also prestigious to own a property in newly
constructed buildings in the Kharkivskyi Raion or Obolon along the Dnieper.
Kiev’s most famous historical architecture complexes are the St. Sophia Cathedral and the Kiev Pechersk
Lavra (Monastery of the Caves), which are recognized by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. Noteworthy
historical architectural landmarks also include the Mariyinsky Palace (designed and constructed from
1745 to 1752, then reconstructed in 1870), several Orthodox churches such as St. Michael’s Cathedral,
St. Andrew’s, St. Vladimir’s, the reconstructed Golden Gate and others.
One of Kiev’s widely recognized modern landmarks is the highly visible giant Mother Motherland statue
made of titanium standing at the Museum of the History of Ukraine in World War II on the Right bank of
the Dnieper River. Other notable sites is the cylindrical Salut hotel, located across from Glory Square and
the eternal flame at the World War Two memorial Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, and the House with
Among Kiev’s best-known monuments are Mikhail Mikeshin’s statue of Bohdan Khmelnytsky astride his
horse located near St. Sophia Cathedral, the venerated Vladimir the Great (St. Vladimir), the baptizer of
Rus’, overlooking the river above Podil from Volodymyrska Hill, the monument to Kyi, Schek and Khoryv
and Lybid, the legendary founders of the city located at the Dnieper embankment. On Independence
Square in the city centre, two monuments elevate two of the city protectors; the historic protector of
Kiev Michael Archangel atop a reconstruction of one of the old city’s gates and a modern invention, the
goddess-protector Berehynia atop a tall column.
Kiev was the historic cultural centre of the East Slavic civilization and a major cradle for the
Christianization of Kievan Rus’. Kiev retained through centuries its cultural importance and even at times
of relative decay, it remained the centre of primary importance of Eastern Orthodox Christianity . Its
sacred sites, which include the Kiev Pechersk Lavra (the Monastery of the Caves) and the Saint Sophia
Cathedral are probably the most famous, attracted pilgrims for centuries and now recognized as a
UNESCO World Heritage Site remain the primary religious centres as well as the major tourist attraction.
The above-mentioned sites are also part of the Seven Wonders of Ukraine collection.
Lviv the largest city in western Ukraine and the seventh largest city in the Ukraine, with a population of
around is 750,000 and area 182.01 km2.
Lviv is one of the most important cultural centers of Ukraine. The city is known as a center of art,
literature, music and theatre. Nowadays, the indisputable evidence of the city cultural richness is a big
number of theatres, concert halls, creative unions, and also the high number of many artistic activities
(more than 100 festivals annually, 60 museums, 10 theatres).
Lviv's historic center has been on the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
(UNESCO) World Heritage list since 1998. UNESCO gave the following reasons for its selection:
Criterion II: In its urban fabric and its architecture, Lviv is an outstanding example of the fusion of the
architectural and artistic traditions of central and eastern Europe with those of Italy and Germany.
Criterion V: The political and commercial role of Lviv attracted to it a number of ethnic groups with
different cultural and religious traditions, who established separate yet interdependent communities
within the city, evidence for which is still discernible in the modern town's landscape.
Lviv's historic churches, buildings and relics date from the 13th century – 18th century (Polish rule). In
recent centuries it was spared some of the invasions and wars that destroyed other Ukrainian cities. Its
architecture reflects various European styles and periods. After the fires of 1527 and 1556 Lviv lost most
of its gothic-style buildings but it retains many buildings in renaissance, baroque and the classic styles.
There are works by artists of the Vienna Secession, Art Nouveau and Art Deco.
The buildings have many stone sculptures and carvings, particularly on large doors, which are hundreds
of years old. The remains of old churches dot the central cityscape. Some three- to five-storey buildings
have hidden inner courtyards and grottoes in various states of repair. Some cemeteries are of interest:
for example, the Lychakivskiy Cemetery where the Polish elite was buried for centuries. Leaving the
central area, the architectural style changes radically as Soviet-era high-rise blocks dominate. In the
center of the city, the Soviet era is reflected mainly in a few modern-style national monuments and
Outdoor sculptures in the city commemorate many notable individuals and topics reflecting the rich and
complex history of Lviv. There are monuments to Adam Mickiewicz, Ivan Franko, King Danylo, Taras
Shevchenko, Ivan Fedorov, Solomiya Krushelnytska, Ivan Pidkova, Mykhailo Hrushevskyi, Pope John Paul
II, Jan Kiliński, Ivan Trush, Saint George, Bartosz Głowacki, the monument to the Virgin Mary, to Nikifor,
The Good Soldier Švejk, Stepan Bandera, Leopold von Sacher-Masoch, and many others.
Lviv named in honor of the Leo, the eldest son of Rus' King Daniel of Galicia, it was the capital of the
Kingdom of Galicia from 1272 to 1349, when it was conquered by King Casimir III the Great who then
became known as the King of Poland and Rus'. From 1434, it was the regional capital of the Ruthenian
Voivodeship in the Kingdom of Poland and was known as Lwów. In 1772, after the First partition of
Poland, the city became the capital of the Habsburg Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria and was
renamed to Lemberg. In 1918 in a short time was the capital of the West Ukrainian People's Republic.
Between the wars, the city was known again as Lwów and was the center of the Lwów Voivodeship in
the Second Polish Republic. After World War II, it became part of the Soviet Union (Ukrainian SSR) and in
1991 of independent Ukraine.
The city has many industries and institutions of higher education such as Lviv University and Lviv
Polytechnic. Lviv is also the home of many cultural institutions, including a philharmonic orchestra and
the Lviv Theatre of Opera and Ballet. The historic city centre is on the UNESCO World Heritage List.
Lviv is located on the edge of the Roztochia Upland, approximately 70 kilometers (43 miles) from the
Polish border and 160 kilometers (99 miles) from the eastern Carpathian Mountains. The average
altitude of Lviv is 296 meters (971 feet) above sea level. Its highest point is the Vysokyi Zamok (High
Castle), 409 meters (1342 feet) above sea level. This castle has a commanding view of the historic city
center with its distinctive green-domed churches and intricate architecture.
The old walled city was at the foothills of the High Castle on the banks of the River Poltava. In the 13th
century, the river was used to transport goods. In the early 20th century, the Poltava was covered over
in areas where it flows through the city; the river flows directly beneath the central street of Lviv,
Freedom Avenue (Prospect Svobody) and the Lviv Theatre of Opera and Ballet.
Odessa is the third most populous city of Ukraine and a major tourism center, seaport and transport hub
located on the northwestern shore of the Black Sea. It is also the administrative center of the Odessa
Oblast and a multiethnic cultural center. Odessa is sometimes called the "pearl of the Black Sea", the
"South Capital", and "Southern Palmyra". The population of the city about 1 110 000 and area 236.9
Before the Tsarist establishment of Odessa, an ancient Greek settlement existed at its location as
elsewhere along the northwestern Black Sea coast. A more recent Tatar settlement was also founded at
the location by Hacı I Giray, the Khan of Crimea in 1440 that was named after him as "Hacıbey". After a
period of Lithuanian Grand Duchy control, Hacibey and surroundings became part of the domain of the
Ottomans in 1529 and remained there until the empire's defeat in the Russo-Turkish War of 1792.
In 1794, the city of Odessa was founded by a decree of the Russian empress Catherine the Great. From
1819 to 1858, Odessa was a free port. During the Soviet period it was the most important port of trade
in the Soviet Union and a Soviet naval base. On 1 January 2000, the Quarantine Pier at Odessa
Commercial Sea Port was declared a free port and free economic zone for a period of 25 years.
During the 19th century, Odessa was the fourth largest city of Imperial Russia, after Moscow, Saint
Petersburg and Warsaw. Its historical architecture has a style more Mediterranean than Russian, having
been heavily influenced by French and Italian styles. Some buildings are built in a mixture of different
styles, including Art Nouveau, Renaissance and Classicist.
Odessa is a warm-water port. The city of Odessa hosts both the Port of Odessa and Port Yuzhne, a
significant oil terminal situated in the city's suburbs. Another notable port, Chornomorsk, is located in
the same oblast, to the south-west of Odessa. Together they represent a major transport hub
integrating with railways. Odessa's oil and chemical processing facilities are connected to Russian and
European networks by strategic pipelines.
Many of Odessa's buildings have rather uniquely for a Ukrainian city, been influenced by the
Mediterranean style of classical architecture. This is particularly noticeable in buildings built by
architects such as the Italian Francesco Boffo, who in early 19th-century built a palace and colonnade for
the Governor of Odessa, Prince Mikhail Vorontsov, the Potocki Palace and many other public buildings.
In 1887 one of the city's most well known architectural monuments was completed – the theatre, which
still hosts a range of performances to this day; it is widely regarded as one of the world's finest opera
houses. The first opera house was opened in 1810 and destroyed by fire in 1873. The modern building
was constructed by Fellner and Helmer in neo-baroque; its luxurious hall was built in the rococo style. It
is said that thanks to its unique acoustics even a whisper from the stage can be heard in any part of the
hall. The theatre was projected along the lines of Dresden's Semperoper built in 1878, with its
nontraditional foyer following the curvatures of the auditorium; the building's most recent renovation
was completed in 2007.
Most of the city's 19th-century houses were built of limestone mined nearby. Abandoned mines were
later used and broadened by local smugglers. This created a gigantic complicated labyrinth of
underground tunnels beneath Odessa, known as "Odessa Catacombs". During World War II, the
catacombs served as a hiding place for partisans.
Deribasivska Street, an attractive pedestrian avenue named after José de Ribas, the Spanish-born
founder of Odessa and decorated Russian Navy Admiral from the Russo-Turkish War, is famous by its
unique character and architecture. During the summer it is common to find large
crowds of people leisurely sitting and talking on the outdoor terraces of numerous cafés, bars and
restaurants, or simply enjoying a walk along the cobblestone street, which is not open to vehicular
traffic and is kept shaded by the linden trees which line its route. A similar streetscape can also be found
in that of Primorsky Bulvar, a grand thoroughfare which runs along the edge of the plateau upon which
the city is situated, and where many of the city's most imposing buildings are to be found.
As one of the biggest on the Black Sea, Odessa's port is busy all year round. The Odessa Sea Port is
located on an artificial stretch of Black Sea coast, along with the north-western part of the Gulf of
Odessa. The total shoreline length of Odessa's sea port is around 7.23 kilometers (4.49 mi). The port,
which includes an oil refinery, container handling facility, passenger area and numerous areas for
handling dry cargo, is lucky in that its work does not depend on seasonal weather; the harbour itself is
defended from the elements by breakwaters. The port is able to handle up to 14 million tons of cargo
and about 24 million tons of oil products annually, whilst its passenger terminals can cater for around 4
a million passengers a year at full capacity.
There are a number of public parks and gardens in Odessa, among these are the Preobrazhensky, Gorky
and Victory parks, the latter of which is an arboretum. The city is also home to a university botanical
garden, which recently celebrated its 200th anniversary, and a number of other smaller gardens.
The Carpathians is certainly a wonderful destination for all who visit Ukraine. Its incredible mountain
lakes, fresh air of dense pine forests and adorable alpine villages beckon travelers from all over the
Carpathian Mountains are clipping the country's southwest corner endowing Ukraine with a crinkled
region of forested hills, spectacular mountain lakes, fast-flowing rivers and picturesque waterfalls. The
Carpathian region in western Ukraine contrasts hugely with the flatness of the steppes in the South East
and of the country as well as urbanized territories of central and eastern Ukraine. Here rises mountain
Hoverla – Ukraine's highest peak (2061m).
This is the land of the Hutsuls, Boykos, Lemkos and other native ethnical groups whose colorful folk
culture is laced through thin villages stretching languidly along wide valley floors. These are the highest
and most picturesque mountain peaks of Ukraine. Carpathian Mountains are the epicenter of Ukraine’s
rural folk culture as well as the number one holiday destination for numerous Ukrainians and
international travelers. The local peaks are very popular with hikers and skiers.
The Carpathians are a crescent-shaped mountain system that was formed by the same forces that lifted
the higher Alps to the west. A mountain range system with an arc shape is roughly 1,500 km long and
stretches across the Central and Eastern Europe. The Carpathians go through Czech Republic, Slovakia,
Poland, Hungary, Ukraine, Serbia, and Romania, making it the second-longest mountain range in Europe.
The mountains begin as a range of low hills near Bratislava, Slovakia, reach their highest point in
Slovakia's High Tatras (Gerlachovský peak at 2655 m), and continue arching eastward into Ukraine
before turning south and bending through Romania, where they reach another high point (Moldoveanu,
2543 m.) and then fade into the plains.
The Ukrainian Carpathians are gentle peaks that rise as high as 2061 m. The higher peaks experienced
some glaciation during the last Ice Age, and there are even a number of small tarns above 1700 meters
and a spectacular lake Sinevyr at 1000 m.
Carpathian Mountains in Ukraine have a relatively mild temperate climate. Winter temperatures may
get down to -10 or -15° C (5 to 14° F), but not much colder than that. Winters and autumns are usually
very snowy and rainy. The Carpathians are moist mountains with between 800 and 1600 mm (31 to 58
inches) of precipitation spread quite evenly throughout the year. Summers are warm with frequent rain
and thunderstorms. The tree line is around 1500-1800 m. above sea level. Ukrainian Carpathians are
typical mountains of medium height with rock of low resistance. Gentle, broad, and little-dissected
ridges and parallel valleys contrast with the deeply incised (up to 1,000 m) transverse valleys with steep
slopes that are the result of the relief's rejuvenation. Only the highest parts of the Carpathians — mainly
the Hutsul Alps and Chornohora — display a high-mountain landscape owing to past glaciation. Rock
fields appear only here and in the Gorgany Mountains, but even the highest peaks of the Carpathians
are covered with clays and continuous vegetation.
The Carpathians and Transcarpathian region (everything west of the main ridge of the Carpathians) are
quite interesting culturally and historically due to a mixture of ethnic groups and historical ties.
Ukrainian highlanders are divided into several ethnographic groups: Hutsuls, Boykos, Lemkos and other
smaller ones. The Lemkos inhabited the Low Beskyd and the western part of the Middle Beskyd (almost
all of them were resettled by the Polish authorities); the Boikos lived up to the Bystrytsia Solotvynska
River in the east; and the Hutsuls resided in the east. The central part of Transcarpathia is settled by the
Zahoriany (tramontanes) or Dolyniany (lowlanders), who are related to the Boikos and speak a central
There are two forms of settlement and farming in the Carpathians and they appear to be independent of
the natural environment. The first is the Hutsul form and the second is practiced by all other
highlanders. The Lemkos, Boikos, and Zahoriany are basically agricultural people. They cleared the
forests to obtain arable land and built their elongated villages in the valleys. Their settlements are at low
altitudes. The basic occupation of the Hutsuls is animal husbandry, their land is used for pastures and
hayfields. Hutsul homesteads are attached to their fields; hence, their settlements are scattered and
extend to considerable altitudes.
The Carpathians consist of a chain of mountain ranges that stretch in an arc from the Czech Republic
(3%) in the northwest through Slovakia (17%), Poland (10%), Hungary (4%) and Ukraine (10%) Serbia
(5%) and Romania (50%) in the southeast. The highest range within the Carpathians is the Tatras, on the
border of Slovakia and Poland, where the highest peaks exceed 2,600 m (8,530 ft). The second-highest
range is the Southern Carpathians in Romania, where the highest peaks exceed 2,500 m (8,202 ft).
The divisions of the Carpathians are usually in three major sections:
Western Carpathians—Austria, Czech Republic, Poland, Slovakia and Hungary
Eastern Carpathians—southeastern Poland, eastern Slovakia, Ukraine, and Romania
Southern Carpathians—Serbia and Romania
The term Outer Carpathians is frequently used to describe the northern rim of the Western and Eastern
The most important cities in or near the Carpathians are: Bratislava and Košice in Slovakia, Kraków in
Poland, Cluj-Napoca, Sibiu, and Braşov in Romania, and Uzhhorod in Ukraine.
Kyiv is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper River.
Lviv the largest city in western Ukraine and the seventh largest city in the Ukraine, with a population of around is 750,000 and area 182.01 km2.
Odessa is the third most populous city of Ukraine and a major tourism center, seaport and transport hub located on the northwestern shore of the Black Sea. It is also the administrative center of the Odessa Oblast and a multiethnic cultural center. Odessa is sometimes called the "pearl of the Black Sea", the "South Capital", and "Southern Palmyra". The population of the city about 1 110 000 and area 236.9 km2.
The Carpathians is certainly a wonderful destination for all who visit Ukraine.
DO NOT MISS YOUR CHANCE
and get 15% sale
Get to know Ukraine not only from photos! We invites you to discover Ukraine!
You will be surprised, but a large number of Ukrainians know little about the sights of our country. Many people think that there is nothing interesting in Ukraine, and it would be better to choose a holiday abroad. But fortunately, this is not so! Ukraine has a huge number of castles, the residence of kings, fortresses, universities, temples, 3 unique Orthodox laurels (a monastery with a special status). As well as salt lakes in the Carpathians, waterfalls, canyons, architectural monuments, traces of past civilizations and even a huge number of attractions.
The location of Ukraine allows you to choose the rest that you like. Whether it is a holiday in the Carpathians, a beach holiday on the Black Sea, or active tourism (rafting, hiking, cycling).
This season tours in Ukraine are one of the priorities of the Extravaganza. We are actively creating new exciting routes to unexplored and already favorite places in Ukraine. Holidays with extravaganza is a high quality service and the most interesting excursions. We carefully plan your trip so that every minute of rest is interesting, enjoyable and memorable for you forever.